(P20)(Wiki)South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

June 4, 2021

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation ( SAARC ) is a regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical association of countries in South Asia . Its member states are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan , India , Maldives , Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka . The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation comprises 3% of the world’s area , 21% of the world’s population , and 4.21% (US$3.67 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2019 .

The association was established in Dhaka on 8 December 1985 . [2] Its secretariat is located in Kathmandu, Nepal . The organization encourages the development of economic and regional integration . [3] The South Asian Free Trade Area was launched in 2006. [4] The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations as an observer and has established links with multilateral entities, 

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

Members [ ]

The state Population [14] (2016) Nominal GDP (in millions of US dollars) 2019 [15] GDP (purchasing power parity) (in millions of US dollars) 2019 [16] GDP per capita GDP Growth ( 2018 ) Exports (in millions of US dollars) 2018 Foreign direct investment (in millions of US dollars) 2017 or earlier Foreign exchange reserves (in millions of US dollars) 2020 or earlier Defense Budget (US$ Million) 2020 [17] Percentage of recipients (above 15 years) life expectancy Population below the poverty line primary school enrollment [18] secondary school enrollment [19] Undernourished Population (2015) [20] Human Development Index Democracy Index Global Terrorism Index G20 Brix Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation Indian Ocean Rim Association Asia Pacific Trade Agreement Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal Initiative Subregional Economic Cooperation of South Asia Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Asian Clearing Union Asian Development Bank The World Bank nuclear weapons
 Afghanistan 34,656,032 $18,734 $76,486 $2,017 2.3% $784 N/A $7,800 $12,000 38.2% 63.67 42% N/A 54% 26.8% 0.498






 Bangladesh 162,951,560 $317,465 $837,588 $5,453 8.1% $40,905 $14,620 $36,140 $4,530 75.4% 72.49 8.1% 98% 54% 16.4% 0.608






 Bhutan 797,765 $2,842 $8,195 $9,540 6.4% $580 $186 $987 $25.1 59.5% 70.20 12% 91% 78% N/A 0.612






 India 1,324,171,354 $2,935,570 $11,325,669 $7,874 6.8% $303,400 $367,500 $487,237 $60,580 83.4% 68.56 21.2% 92% 75% 15.2% 0.640






 the moldive Islands 427,756 $5,786 $8,667 $21,760 6.9% $256 $324 $722 $86.4 98.6% 77.34 16% N/A N/A 5.2% 0.717


 Nepal 28,982,771 $29,813 $94,414 $2,905 6.2% $819 $103 $9,440 $213 64.7% 70.25 6% 98% 67% 7.8% 0.574






 Pakistan 193,203,476 $284,214 $1,202,091 $5,839 3.3% $21,940 $41,560 $12,784 $11,400 58% 66.48 24.3% 72% 34% 22% 0.562






 Sri Lanka 20,798,492 $86,556 $304,826 $13,397 3.0% $10,930 N/A $7,635 $2,500 93.2% 75.28 6.7% 94% 99% 22% 0.770






The member countries are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan , India , Maldives , Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka . [21]

The association was established by seven countries in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan began negotiating its accession to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and formally applied for membership in the same year. [22] [23] The issue of Afghanistan’s accession to SAARC has generated a great deal of discussion in every member state, including concerns about the definition of South Asian identity [24] because Afghanistan is considered a country in Central Asia , while it is not accepted as a Middle Eastern country , Nor as a country in Central Asia , or as part of the Indian subcontinent . [25]

The member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) imposed a condition on Afghanistan, which is the holding of general elections. Non-partisan elections were held in late 2005. [24] Despite initial hesitation and internal discussions, Afghanistan joined the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation as the eighth member state in April 2007. [24] [26]

Structural ]


SAARC Secretariat in Kathmandu , Nepal

The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu on January 16, 1987 and inaugurated by the late King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal. [42] It consists of the following:

Specialized bodies [ ]

SAARC member states have established SAARC specialized bodies in member states, which have special mandates and structures different from regional centres. These bodies are managed by their boards of directors made up of representatives from all member states, a representative of the Honorable Secretary-General of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the host government. The heads of these bodies act as a member secretary of the Board of Directors who reports to the Program Committee of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.

specialized body City The state Website
South Asian Arbitration Council (SARCO) Islamabad Pakistan www.sarco-sec.org
South Asian Development Fund (SDF) Thimphu Bhutan www.sdfsec.org
South Asian University (SAU) New Delhi India www.sau.int
South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO) Dhaka Bangladesh www.sarso.org.bd

Regional centers [ ]

The SAARC secretariat is supported through regional centers established in member states to promote regional cooperation. These centers are managed by boards of directors consisting of representatives from all member states, the Secretary General of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the host government. The director of the center serves as a member secretary to the Board of Directors who reports to the Program Committee. After December 31, 2015, 6 regional centers were suspended by a collective decision: the South Asian Meteorological Research Center, the South Asian Forestry Center, the South Asian Development Fund, the South Asian Coastal Zone Management Center, the South Asia Information Center and the South Asian Human Resource Development Center. [43]

Regional Center City country website
South Asian Agricultural Center (SAC) Dhaka Bangladesh Official Website
South Asian Meteorological Research Center (SMRC) Dhaka Bangladesh  
South Asian Forest Center (SFC) Thimphu Bhutan  
South Asian Documentation Center (SDC) New Delhi India  
South Asian Disaster Management Center (SDMC) Gandinagar India Official Website
South Asia Coastal Zone Management Center (SCZMC) Finance the moldive Islands  
South Asia Information Center (SIC) Kathmandu Nepal  
South Asian Tuberculosis and HIV Center (STAC) Kathmandu Nepal Official Website
South Asian Human Resource Development Center (SHRDC) Islamabad Pakistan  
South Asian Energy Center (SEC) Islamabad Pakistan Official Website
Sark Cultural Center (SCC) Colombo Sri Lanka Official Website

Disaster Management Center for South Asia [ ]

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SDMC) Disaster Management Center has been established at the campus of the Gujarat Institute of Disaster Management (GIDM), Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. It has eight member states: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It is charged with the responsibility of serving the Member States by providing policy advice, technical support on system development, capacity building services and training on comprehensive disaster risk management in the SAARC region. The center also facilitates the exchange of information and experiences for the effective and efficient management of disaster risks.

Main bodies [ ]

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has six main bodies, [44] which are:

  • South Asian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI),
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in Law (SAARCLAW), [45]
  • South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA),
  • South Asian Foundation (SAF),
  • South Asia Initiative to End Violence against Children (SAIEVAC),
  • Foundation of South Asian Writers and Writers (FOSWAL)

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation also has about 18 affiliated bodies [46]


South Asian Free Trade Area [ ]


South Asian Free Trade Area countries

The South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was envisioned as a first step towards the transition to a free trade area leading later towards a customs union, common market, and economic union. In 1995, at the Sixteenth Session of the Council of Ministers (New Delhi, 18-19 December 1995) they agreed on the need to seriously pursue the South Asian Free Trade Agreement, and to this end, an Intergovernmental Group of Experts (IGEG) was established in 1996 to determine the necessary steps To apply to the free trade zone. They decided at the Tenth SAARC Summit held in Colombo , (29-31 July 1998) to establish a Committee of Experts (COE) to formulate a comprehensive treaty framework for the establishment of a free trade area within the Association, taking into account the disparities in development within the region and taking into account the need for Setting realistic and achievable goals.

The FTA was signed on January 6, 2004 during the 12th Summit of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation held in Islamabad , Pakistan . The agreement entered into force on January 1, 2006, and the trade liberalization program began from July 1, 2006. Under this agreement, the members of the Association will reduce their duties to 20 percent by 2009. After the agreement entered into force, the SAFTA Ministerial Council (SMC) was established which includes Trade Ministers of the Member States. [55]In 2012, SAARC exports increased significantly to $354.6 billion from $206.7 billion in 2009. Imports also increased from $330 billion to $602 billion during the same period. But the association’s intraregional trade amounts to just over 1% of the SAARC’s GDP. Unlike ASEAN (which is actually smaller than SAARC in terms of the size of the economy), intra-bloc trade is 10% of GDP.

It was envisaged that SAFTA would gradually move towards the South Asian Economic Union, but the current intra-trade and investment relationship is not encouraging and this goal may be difficult to achieve. The intra-regional trade of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) accounts for only five percent of the share of intra-regional trade in the total trade in South Asia . Similarly, foreign direct investment is also weak. The inflow of foreign direct investment within the region is about 4% of the total foreign investment. [56]

The Asian Development Bank has estimated that intraregional trade in the SAARC region has the potential to increase agricultural exports by $14 billion annually from the current level of $8 billion to $22 billion. The study by the Asian Development Bank indicates that against the potential average intra-regional trade of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation of $22 billion annually, the actual trade in South Asia was only about $8 billion. Thus, the unearned potential of intra-regional trade is $14 billion annually, i.e. 68%. [57] [58]

Visa exemption system ]

The Visa Waiver Scheme was launched in 1992. Leaders at the 4th Summit (Islamabad, December 29-31, 1988) recognized the importance of people-to-people communication among SAARC countries, and decided that certain categories of eminent persons should Eligible for a private travel document. The document will exempt them from visas within the region. As directed by the summit, the Cabinet has been under regular review of the list of categories involved.

The list currently has 24 categories of eligible people, and it includes VIPs, Supreme Court judges, parliamentarians, senior officials, businessmen, journalists and athletes.

Visa stickers are issued by the respective member states for the categories assigned to that particular country. The visa sticker is generally valid for one year. Implementation is regularly reviewed by the immigration authorities of the member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. [59]


this group is by geography close to India and India has a good presence  in it 

very active and has free trade agreement

just introductions (next step is to tell some of international agreements that has been made inside this group)(you watch sometime that in in the press meeting while there is meeeting (yearly or every 2 years for the group )these agreements give the group support from countries assign agreement during the meetings and give the group more strength 

so it will be nice to mention 

the group has made good achievement 

I hope you like it 

for some of negativity that was a-round (we have a lot of good things ) 

building start simple (basics and corners) and then start to get the shape and once get the shape it start to be bright and get the value 

I haven’t seen that 


لا تقم بسرقة و نهب فرص الاخريين